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如何习得第二门外语?(三)

2019-10-08来源:重庆女性网


语言学习中的认知主义Cognitivist理论 !

1. Information processing 信息处理理论 

提出者:Information processing 信息处理/加工理论 由 Segalowitz 提出  ;Automaticity theory and Skill Acquisition theory  自动性理论与技能习得理论 ,由DeKeyser提出 

理论特征:Explicitly learn aspects of the L2,which then become more fluent and automatic with practice. 侧重练习提高语言流利度和语言自动化输出 

教学法:Teacher explains rules of the language,followed by lots of practice of those language features as scaffolding is reduced. 老师解释语言规则并引导学生练习,之后逐步减少引导


2. Interaction hypothesis / Output hypothesis 交互假说(相互作用假说)/输出假说 

提出者:Long / Gass 提出Interaction hypothesis ,Swain提出 Output hypothesis 假说 

理论特征:Talking with others encourages negotiation of meaning to simplify input. Talking also encourages the need to overcome limitations to expressing meaning. 和别人交谈有助于意义协商。

教学法:Lots of speaking,often in pairs and small groups,with learner ability to express meaning to others a key to development. 通常成对或小组讨论交流,相互交流促进意义协商使得语言发展。 


3. Noticing Hypothesis 注意假说 

提出者:Schmidt 施密特 

理论特征: Explicitly become aware of correct usage of a particular aspect of the language,to facilitate learning. 特别注意某一特定语言方面的正确运用,以促使学习。 

教学法: Emphasis on drawing learner awareness to correct usage of the language feature. 强调语言特征的正确运用。 


4. Usage-based / Connectionism 以使用为基础的/ 联结主义 

提出者:Ellis 艾里斯 

理论特征:Continually encountering the same aspects of language strengthens connections in brain,leading to acquisition. 持续学习语言某一方面以加强大脑对其认知,即对语言以及其在现实生活中如何使用的联系,以形成习得。 

教学法:Teacher provides lots of input and practice to build associations in mind between words(especially chunks of language)and contexts they are used in. 老师提供大量输入练习,帮助学生加强内容与其运用的联系。 


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